Collezione Completa 2023

PubAIV 2023
(aggiornato a Giugno 2023)

1) Magmi e sistemi di alimentazione (5 articoli)
2) Dinamiche eruttive e di messa in posto (5 articoli)
3) Geologia e struttura dei vulcani (5 articoli) (+2 articoli)
4) Monitoraggio, pericolosità e rischio vulcanico (6 articoli) (+3 articoli)
5) Vulcani e società (1 articolo)

Tematica 1: Magmi e sistemi di alimentazione
Costa S., Caricchi L., Pistolesi M., Gioncada A., Masotta M., Bonadonna C., Rosi M. (2023)
A data driven approach to mineral chemistry unveils magmatic processes associated with long-lasting, low-intensity volcanic activity.
Sci Rep 13, 1314 (2023)
Data di pubblicazione: 24/01/2023
PubAIV-ID-00096 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

The most frequent volcanic eruptions are of low‐intensity and small magnitude. They produce abundant ash‐sized (< 2 mm) clasts, which are too small to establish quantitative links between magmatic processes and eruptive dynamics using classic approaches. This inhibits our ability to study the past behaviour of frequently erupting volcanoes, essential to predict their future activity and mitigate their impact. The Palizzi unit (10–13th century, Vulcano, Italy) includes a prototype sequence of ash deposits resulting from prolonged Vulcanian eruptions punctuated by those of two larger sub‐Plinian events. We apply Hierarchical Clustering to chemical analyses of clinopyroxene collected along the stratigraphy to decipher magma dynamics during this eruptive period. We identify periods of magma input and we link deep magmatic processes to eruptive dynamics, also showing that our approach can be used to connect magma and eruptive dynamics in any volcanic sequence. This is essential to track the processes occurring during frequent eruptions and to identify the build‐up to larger explosive events.
Lo Forte F.M., Aiuppa A., Rotolo S.G., Zanon V. (2022)
Temporal evolution of the Fogo Volcano magma storage system (Cape Verde Archipelago): a fluid inclusions perspective.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 433, 2023.
Data di pubblicazione: 05/12/2022
PubAIV-ID-00095 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

The architecture of the magma storage system underneath Fogo Volcano (Cape Verde Archipelago) is characterised
using novel fluid inclusion results from fifteen basanites, spanning the last 120 thousand years of volcanic
activity, and encompassing a major flank collapse event at ~73 ka. Fluid inclusions, hosted in olivine and clinopyroxene,
are made of pure CO2, and based on their textural characteristics, are distinguished in early (Type I)
and late (Type II) stage. Inclusions homogenize to a liquid phase in the 2.8 to 30.8 °C temperature range.
Densities values, recalculated assuming an original 10% H2O content at the time of trapping, range from 543 to
952 kg⋅m3, and correspond to entrapment or re-equilibration pressure ranges of 500–595 MPa, 700–740 MPa,
and 245–610 MPa respectively for pre-collapse, early post-collapse, and Holocene/historical eruptions. These
entrapment pressures are interpreted as reflecting the existence of two main magma accumulation zones at ~25
km and ~ 13–21 km depth, and a zone of fluid inclusion re-equilibration at 9–12 km depth. There is evidence of a
complex temporal evolution of the magma system. Historical eruptions, and especially the three most recent ones
(occurred in 1951, 1995 and 2014–25), bring fluid inclusion evidence for transient, pre-eruptive shallow (9–17
km depth) magma ponding. Early post-collapse (60 ka) volcanics, in contrast, document fast magma transport
from ~25 km, and suggest a reconfiguration of the magma system after the Monte Amarelo collapse event.
Longo A., Garg D., Papale P., Montagna C.P. (2023)
Dynamics of Magma Chamber Replenishment Under Buoyancy and Pressure Forces.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 128, e2022JB025316
Data di pubblicazione: 10/01/2023
PubAIV-ID-00101 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Active magma chambers are periodically replenished upon a combination of buoyancy and pressure forces driving upward motion of initially deep magma. Such periodic replenishments concur to determine the chemical evolution of shallow magmas, they are often associated to volcanic unrests, and they are nearly ubiquitously found to shortly precede a volcanic eruption. Here, we numerically simulate the dynamics of shallow magma chamber replenishment by systematically investigating the roles of buoyancy and pressure forces, from pure buoyancy to pure pressure conditions and across combinations of them. Our numerical results refer to volcanic systems that are not frequently erupting, for which magma at shallow level is isolated from the surface (“closed conduit” volcanoes). The results depict a variety of dynamic evolutions, with the pure buoyant end-member associated with effective convection and mixing and generation of no or negative overpressure in the shallow chamber, and the pure pressure end-member translating into effective shallow pressure increase without any dynamics of magma convection associated. Mixed conditions with variable extents of buoyancy and pressure forces illustrate dynamics initially dominated by overpressure, then, over the longer term, by buoyancy forces. Results globally suggest that many shallow magmatic systems may evolve during their lifetime under the control of buoyancy forces, likely triggered by shallow magma degassing. That naturally leads to long-term stable dynamic conditions characterized by periodic replenishments of shallow partially degassed, heavier magma by volatile-rich fresh deep magma, similar to those reconstructed from petrology of many shallow-emplaced magmatic bodies.
Moschini P., Mollo S., Pontesilli A., Nazzari M., Petrone C.M., Fanara S., Vona A., Gaeta M., Romano C., Scarlato P. (2023)
A review of plagioclase growth rate and compositional evolution in mafic alkaline magmas: Guidelines for thermometry, hygrometry, and timescales of magma dynamics at Stromboli and Mt. Etna.
Earth-Science Reviews 240, 104399
Data di pubblicazione: 26/03/2023
PubAIV-ID-00107 - Articolo in Rivista (non-open access)

Mafic alkaline magmas, such as those feeding the persistent eruptive activity of Stromboli and Mt. Etna volcanoes in Italy, are dominated by the crystallization of plagioclase via cooling and degassing phenomena related to the dynamics of shallow crustal reservoirs and eruptive conduits. Because plagioclase textures and compositions are extremely sensitive to the changes of intensive variables in subvolcanic plumbing systems, the phenomenological variability of erupted crystals preserves detailed evidence of complex growth histories. From this point of view, we reappraise the textural maturation and compositional complexity of plagioclase by allying thermodynamic and kinetic principles to natural and experimental observations, with the purpose of drawing up guidelines for reconstructing magma dynamics in mafic alkaline volcanic settings. A multifaceted statistical method is adopted to parameterize the decay of crystal growth rate with increasing crystallization time, as relaxation kinetics prevails over melt supersaturation effects. This model parameterization is combined with the textural analysis of natural plagioclase crystals to quantify the residence time of phenocrysts in equilibrium with magmas at Stromboli and Mt. Etna and/or the timescale of rapid microlite growth during disequilibrium ascent of magmas within the conduit. The role played by temperature and melt-water content on plagioclase components and major cation substitution mechanisms is also evaluated under both isobaric-isothermal and decompression conditions. The emerging paradigm is that the influence of dissolved water on anorthite-albite exchange between plagioclase and melt is overwhelmingly mitigated by changes in temperature at conditions of P = 30–300 MPa, T = 1050–1150 °C, fO2 = NNO + 1.9-NNO + 2.3, and melt-H2O = 0.6–4.4 wt%. As a corollary, anorthite and albite melt activities are almost fully encapsulated in the variation of anhydrous melt components as the crystallization of plagioclase proceeds during magma cooling. Following this line of reasoning, we propose an integrated modeling approach to decipher complex zoning patterns in natural plagioclase phenocrysts from mafic alkaline eruptions. Key findings from our re-assessment of equilibrium, thermometric, and hygrometric models indicate that temperature and dissolved water can be iteratively estimated for different plagioclase textural patterns if crystals are sufficiently strongly zoned and probability-based criteria are applied to determine the maximum probability distribution from kernel density analysis.
Perinelli C., Fabbrizio A., Bonechi B., Gaeta M., Conte A.M. (2023)
Experimental cannibalization of plagioclase by alkaline basalt magmas.
Periodico di Mineralogia, 92, 75-95 (2023)
Data di pubblicazione: 13/02/2023
PubAIV-ID-00099 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Time-series crystallization/dissolution experiments were conducted on a natural potassic basalt seeded with bytownitic plagioclases (Plg) at atmospheric pressure, in air, at 1180-1240 °C and isothermal dwell time up to 20 hours. Plg-seed presence promotes the early formation of new-Plg, dampening the clinopyroxene (Cpx) crystallization. New-Plgs grow at a rate from 10 -6 up to 10 -8 cm·s-1 as the dwell time increases. Seeds overgrow at similar rate. Cpx crystallizes with a delay of at least 3 hours; this has a significant impact on the composition of both residual melt and new-Plgs. For undercooling>35 °C the Cpx delay causes a strong supersaturation of this phase in the melt resulting in a decrease in the new-Plg nucleation rate by 2 orders of magnitude in the 3 h-experiment. In the 15h-run, Cpx coarsening and the decrease of crystallinity suggest the achievement of a near-equilibrium conditions. Cpx growth rate is in the order of 10-7 cm·s-1 showing very limited variation. Finally, for the investigated superheating (5-15 °C) only the long lasting experiments allows an estimation of Plg dissolution rate (10-9 cm·s-1) although changes in the melt composition are already detectable in the 3h-runs.As a whole our results suggest that in natural systems, the takeover of antecrysts/xenocrysts by a magma can induce on a short time scales, changes in its initial nucleation behavior with remarkable petrological implications for the solidification paths and eruptive dynamics of potassic magmatic systems.
Tematica 2: Dinamiche eruttive e di messa in posto
Carnevale G., Caracausi A., Rotolo S.G., Paternoster M., Zanon V. (2022)
New Inferences on Magma Dynamics in Melilitite-Carbonatite Volcanoes: The Case Study of Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy)
Geophysical Research Letters, 49, e2022GL099075.
Data di pubblicazione: 07/11/2022
PubAIV-ID-00106 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

This study provides the first micro-thermometric data of fluid inclusions (FIs) in mafic loose (disaggregated) xenocrysts and ultramafic xenoliths in explosive products of the melilitite-carbonatite Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Pure CO2 late stage FIs hosted in rock-forming minerals of wehrlite xenoliths and clinopyroxene xenocrysts were trapped at the local crust-mantle boundary (32 km). In contrast, trapping pressures within the loose olivine xenocrysts are from 3.2 to 4.5 kbar (8–13 km). Considering the ongoing degassing of mantle-derived CO2 rich gases, together with seismic evidences of the presence of low amount of melts at depth, and the tectonic control of the past volcanic activity, our study opens new perspective about the hazardous nature of the “quiescent” melilitite-carbonatite volcanoes.
Di Fiore F., Vona A., Scarani A., Giordano G., Romano C., Giordano D., Caricchi L., Martin Lorenzo A., Rodriguez F., Coldwell B., Hernandez P., Pankhurst M. (2023)
Experimental Constraints on the Rheology of Lavas From 2021 Cumbre Vieja Eruption (La Palma, Spain).
Geophysical Research Letter, Volume 50, Issue 4, 2023.
Data di pubblicazione: 14/02/2023
PubAIV-ID-00100 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

The 2021 Tajogaite eruption of Cumbre Vieja (La Palma, Spain) was typified by the emission of low viscosity lavas that flowed at high velocities and inundated a large area. We experimentally investigated the rheological evolution of melt feeding the eruption through concentric cylinder viscometry to understand the exceptional flowing ability of these lavas and constrain its emplacement dynamics. We conducted a set of cooling deformation experiments at different cooling rates (from 0.1 to 10 °C/min), and isothermal deformation experiments at subliquidus dwell temperatures between 1225 and 1175°C. All experiments were conducted at a shear rate of 10 s−1. Results show that disequilibrium crystallization and its timescale fundamentally control the rheological evolution of the melt, resulting in different rheological response to deformation of the crystal-bearing magmatic suspension. Integrating rheological data with field observations allows us to shed light on the mechanisms that govern the high flowability of these lavas.
Di Roberto, A., Re, G., Scateni, B., Petrelli, M., Tesi, T., Capotondi, L., Morigi C., Galli G., Colizza E., Melis R., Torricella F., Giordano G., Giglio F., Gallerani A., Gariboldi K. (2023)
Cryptotephras in the marine sediment record of the Edisto Inlet, Ross Sea: Implications for the volcanology and tephrochronology of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.
Quaternary Science Advances, 100079.
Data di pubblicazione: 18/02/2023
PubAIV-ID-00102 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

We present the results of the tephrochronology study of a 14.49 m long marine sediment core (TR 17–08) collected in the Edisto Inlet, Ross Sea (Antarctica). The core contains four cryptotephra layers at 55–56, 512–513, 517–518, and 524–525 cm of depth, which have been characterised by a detailed description of the texture, mineral assemblage, and single glass shards major and trace element geochemistry. The age model of the investigated sedimentary sequence, based on radiocarbon dating, indicates that the topmost cryptotephra correlates with the widespread 1254 CE tephra erupted by a historical eruption (696 ± 2 cal yrs BP) of Mount Rittmann, in northern Victoria Land. Deeper cryptotephra layers were derived from previously unknown explosive eruptions of Mount Melbourne volcano and were emplaced between 1615 cal yrs BP and 1677 cal yrs BP, e.g. between the 3rd and 4th centuries CE. This discovery demonstrates that the Mount Melbourne volcanic complex has been highly active in historical times allowing significant progress in the current understanding of regional eruptive history. Moreover, from a tephrochronological point of view, the detected cryptotephra provide new regional isochron markers to facilitate high-precision correlations and help stratigraphically constrain changes in environmental and climatic conditions that are identified by multidisciplinary studies.
Di Traglia F., Calvari C., Borselli L., Cassanego L., Giudicepietro F., Macedonio G., Nolesini T., Casagli N. (2023)
Assessing flank instability of Stromboli volcano (Italy) by reappraising the 30 December 2002 tsunamigenic landslides.
Data di pubblicazione: 13/03/2023
PubAIV-ID-00105 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Bearing in mind the destructive potential of tsunamis induced by volcanic landslides, the tsunamigenic event occurring at Stromboli volcano in Italy on 30 December 2002 has been re-examined here, by means of visible images and slope stability analysis. This was one of the few examples in the world of a flank collapse occurring at a volcano that was directly observed. We present the results of stability analyses, together with a sequence of photos collected from a helicopter a few minutes before the collapse. The result of this study is that the sequence of landslides triggering the 2002 Stromboli tsunami can be defined as the final stage of a lateral magma intrusion that exerted a high thrust at high altitude, destabilizing the entire slope. This study allows a more complete understanding of the event that took place on Stromboli on 30 December 2002. Furthermore, the approach used here, if appropriately modified, can be used in other contexts, contributing to the understanding of the condition that leads to tsunamigenic landslides.
Visalli R., Giuffrida M., Viccaro M. (2023)
Unraveling textural and chemical features in volcanic rocks through advanced image processing: a case study from the 2019 paroxysmal eruptions of Stromboli.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 24, e2022GC010774.
Data di pubblicazione: 28/02/2023
PubAIV-ID-00103 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

The Quantitative X-Ray Map Analyzer software, a new tool for image processing, has been tested on intertwined pumices and scoriae emitted during the two paroxysmal eruptions of Stromboli of 2019, whose textural and compositional heterogeneities reflect the coexistence of low porphyritic shoshonitic-basalts and high porphyritic shoshonites. The procedure applied was designed to quantitatively document the complex variations in texture and composition of these products, allowing substantial time reduction of analytical and data processing. The procedure utilizes Principal Components Analysis and supervised Maximum Likelihood Classification for multivariate statistical data handling of an array of X-ray elemental maps acquired at the millimeter scale in thin-sections. This technique permits the production of high-contrast colored images, which allow the classification of rock constituents, extrapolating the associated modal abundances and imaging chemical variations within the glass. Results highlight the close interconnection at the microscale of two types of magma in the erupted products, manifested in each processed image by the presence of contiguous areas preserving textural bulk properties typical of the pumice or scoria. The proportion of the two magmas feeding the eruptions is not simply represented by the proportions of scoria and pumice in individual clasts, as both scoria and pumice contain glass with the composition of shoshonitic-basalts and shoshonites. This method also allows the recognition of important discordances between the textural and chemical features of the two fractions involved, as well as discernment of the compositions of the two interacting magmas at the microscopic scale, even in those micro-domains showing evidence of intense interaction processes.
Tematica 3: Geologia e struttura dei vulcani
Branca S., Cinquegrani A., Cioni R., Conte A.M., Conticelli S., De Astis G., de Vita S., De Rosa R., Di Vito M.A., Donato P., Forni F., Francalanci L., Gaeta M., Giaccio B., Giordano G., Giuffrida M., Isaia R., Lucchi F., Marra F., Massaro S., Nicotra E., Palladino D., Perinelli C., Petrosino P., Pistolesi M., Sepulveda‐Birke J.P., Sottili G., Romagnoli C., Rotolo S., Sulpizio R., Tranne C.A., Viccaro M. (2023)
The Italian Quaternary volcanism.
Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary, 36 (2), 221-284
Data di pubblicazione: 29/06/2023
PubAIV-ID-00115 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

The peninsular and insular Italy are punctuated by Quaternary volcanoes and their rocks constitute an important aliquot of the Italian Quaternary sedimentary successions. Also away from volcanoes themselves, volcanic ash layers are a common and frequent feature of the Quaternary records, which provide us with potential relevant stratigraphic and chronological markers at service of a wide array of the Quaternary science issues. In this paper, a broad representation of the Italian volcano-logical community has joined to provide an updated comprehensive state of art of the Italian Quaternary volcanism. The eruptive history, style and dynamics and, in some cases, the hazard assessment of about thirty Quaternary volcanoes, from the north-ernmost Mt. Amiata, in Tuscany, to the southernmost Pantelleria and Linosa, in Sicily Channel, are here reviewed in the light of the substantial improving of the methodological approaches and the overall knowledge achieved in the last decades in the vol-canological field study. We hope that the present review can represent a useful and agile document summarising the knowledege on the Italian volcanism at the service of the Quaternary community operating in central Mediterranean area.
Del Carlo P., Di Roberto A., Re G., Albert P.G., Smith V.C., Giudice G., Larocca G., Scateni B., Cannata A. (2023)
Historical explosive activity of Mount Melbourne Volcanic Field (Antarctica) revealed by englacial tephra deposits.
Bulletin of Volcanology 85,39
Data di pubblicazione: 31/05/2023
PubAIV-ID-00111 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Five tephra layers named BRH1 to 5 were sampled in an ice cliff located on the north-eastern flank of Mount Melbourne (northern Victoria Land, Antarctica). The texture, componentry, mineralogy, and major and trace element compositions of glass shards have been used to characterize these layers. These properties suggest that they are primary fall deposits produced from discrete eruptions that experienced varying degrees of magma/water interaction. The major and trace element glass shard analyses on single glass shards indicate that Mount Melbourne Volcanic Field is the source of these tephra layers and the geochemical diversity highlights that the eruptions were fed by compositionally diverse melts that are interpreted to be from a complex magma system with a mafic melt remobilizing more evolved trachy-andesitic to trachytic magma pockets. Geochemical compositions, along with textural and mineralogical data, have allowed correlations between two of the englacial tephra and distal cryptotephra from Mount Melbourne, recovered within a marine sediment core in the Edisto Inlet (~ 280 km northeast of Mount Melbourne), and constrain the age of these englacial tephra layers to between the third and the fourth century CE. This work provides new evidence of the intense historical explosive activity of the Mount Melbourne Volcanic Field and better constrains the rates of volcanism in northern Victoria Land. These data grant new clues on the eruptive dynamics and tephra dispersal, and considerably expand the geochemical (major and trace elements) dataset available for the Mount Melbourne Volcanic Field. In the future, this will facilitate the precise identification of tephra layers from this volcanic source and will help define the temporal and spatial correlation between Antarctic records using tephra layers. Finally, this work also yields new valuable time-stratigraphic marker horizons for future dating, synchronization, and correlations of different palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic records across large regions of Antarctica.
Galetto F., Pritchard M. E., Hornby A. J., Gazel E., Mahowald N. M. (2023)
Spatial and Temporal Quantification of Subaerial Volcanism From 1980 to 2019: Solid Products, Masses, and Average Eruptive Rates.
Reviews of Geophysics, e2022RG000783.
Data di pubblicazione: 02/03/2023
PubAIV-ID-00104 - Articolo in Rivista (non-open access)

Volcanism is one of the main mechanisms transferring mass and energy between the interior of the Earth and the Earth's surface. However, the global mass flux of lava, volcanic ash and explosive pyroclastic deposits is not well constrained. Here we review published estimates of the mass of the erupted products from 1980 to 2019 by a global compilation. We identified 1,064 magmatic eruptions that occurred between 1980 and 2019 from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program database. For each eruption, we reported both the total erupted mass and its partitioning into the different volcanic products. Using this data set, we quantified the temporal and spatial evolution of subaerial volcanism and its products from 1980 to 2019 at a global and regional scale. The mass of magma erupted in each analyzed decade ranged from 1.1–4.9 × 10^13 kg. Lava is the main subaerial erupted product representing ∼57% of the total erupted mass of magma. The products related to the biggest eruptions (Magnitude ≥6), with long recurrence times, can temporarily make explosive products more abundant than lava (e.g., decade 1990–1999). Twenty-three volcanoes produced ∼72% of the total mass, while two different sets of 15 volcanoes erupted >70% of the total mass of either effusive or explosive products. At a global scale, the 10 and 40-year average eruptive rates calculated from 1980 to 2019 have the same magnitude as the long-term average eruptive rates (from thousand to millions of years), because in both cases rates are scaled for times comparable to the recurrence time of the biggest eruptions occurred.
Malaguti A.B., Branca S., Speranza F., Coltelli M., Del Carlo P., Renzulli A. (2023)
Age of the Valle del Bove formation and chronology of the post-collapse flank eruptions, Etna volcano (Italy).
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 434
Data di pubblicazione: 13/01/2023
PubAIV-ID-00097 - Articolo in Rivista (non open access)

The Valle del Bove is a profound and wide scar on the east Etna flank witnessing the Holocene main volcano-tectonic event of the volcano, frequently invaded by lava flows during the last centuries. The Valle del Bove slope failure produced the Milo debris avalanche deposit on the lower east flank that is partially covered by the Mongibello lavas and a pyroclastic succession. In this paper, we constrain for the first time the age of the Milo debris avalanche deposit and the overlying lava succession exposed at three quarries recently caved at the valley mouth through a multidisciplinary approach integrating stratigraphic and petrographic analyses, 14C, and paleomagnetic dating. In particular, 14C age determinations of the Milo debris avalanche deposit indicate that the initial stage of the catastrophic flank collapse of the Valle del Bove occurred at 7478–7134 BCE during the Mesolithic age. Conversely, the main portion of the lava succession filling the valley floor emplaced after the sub-Plinian picritic eruption occurred at 2579–2278 BCE (FS tephra layer) consistently with the increasing occurrence frequency of flank eruptions documented in the geological record of Etna during the past 4000 yrs. Paleomagnetic dating highlighted that in the study area the sub-Plinian eruption was followed by two quasi-contemporaneous flank eruptions during the Late Copper age (2600–2400 BCE), whereas other two flank eruptions occurred during Greek-Roman and Medieval ages. These results have relevant implications on the stratigraphy and evolution of Etna, particularly on the Valle del Bove initial collapse and the relative emplacement of the Chiancone detritic-alluvial sequence.
Scandone R. (2022)
Vesuvio, storie di uomini e vulcani.
Data di pubblicazione: 30/12/2022
PubAIV-ID-00094 - Libro

Nel tentativo di tenere vivo il ricordo di un vulcano ancora attivo, ne ripercorriamo la storia e il suo intreccio con le vicende umane, evidenziando il ruolo da esso svolto nello sviluppo della vulcanologia nonché i drammi legati alla sua imprevedibilità..
Seguiremo cronologicamente l’attività del vulcano e gli studi fatti per conoscerlo, fin dagli inizi, entrando più dettagliatamente nel periodo storico, con le molte eruzioni che hanno provocato lutti e rovine e allo stesso tempo hanno generato un territorio fertile, stimolato una società vivace e circondato di attenzione un panorama di ineguagliabile bellezza.
Tematica 4: Monitoraggio, pericolosità e rischio vulcanico
Costa G., Mereu L., Prestifilippo M., Scollo S., Viccaro M. (2023)
Modeling the Trajectories of Ballistics in the Summit Area of Mt. Etna (Italy) during the 2020–2022 Sequence of Lava Fountains.
Geosciences 13, 145
Data di pubblicazione: 12/05/2023
PubAIV-ID-00109 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Between 2020 and 2022, more than sixty lava fountains occurred at Mt. Etna (Italy), which formed high eruption columns rising up to 15 km above sea level (a.s.l.). During those events, several ballistics fell around the summit craters, sometimes reaching touristic areas. The rather frequent activity poses questions on how the impact associated with the fallout of those particles, can be estimated. In this work, we present field data collected soon after the lava fountain on 21 February 2022. This event produced a volcanic plume of about 10 km a.s.l. which was directed toward the southeast. Several ballistics fell in the area of the Barbagallo Craters (just southeast of the summit area at around 2900 m a.s.l.), which is one of the most popular touristic areas on Etna. Hence, we collected several samples and performed laboratory analyses in order to retrieve their size, shape and density. Those values together with a quantitative analysis of the lava fountain were compared with results obtained by a free-available calculator of ballistic trajectories named the ‘Eject!’. A similar approach was hence applied to other lava fountains of the 2020–2022 sequence for which the fallout of large clasts was reported. This work is a first step to identifying in near real-time the area affected by the fallout of ballistics during Etna lava fountains and quantifying their hazard.
Galetto F., Reale D., Sansosti E., Acocella V. (2023)
Implications for Shallow Magma Transfer During the 2017 and 2018 Eruptions at Fernandina (Galápagos) Inferred From InSAR Data.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, e2022JB026174
Data di pubblicazione: 27/05/2023
PubAIV-ID-00110 - Articolo in Rivista (non-open access)

Previous work at Fernandina, the most active volcano of the Western Galápagos (Ecuador),
revealed evidence for both a shallow and a deep magma reservoir, but the relative contribution of the two
reservoirs to eruptions remains unclear. Here we investigate the September 2017 circumferential eruption and
the June 2018 radial eruption using interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and geodetic modeling. Our
results show that during the 2017 eruption magma was simultaneously withdrawn from the deep reservoir,
injected upwards through the shallow reservoir, and then fed the circumferential feeder dike to the SW of the
caldera. Two episodes of inflow of new magma occurred in both the deep and shallow magma reservoirs in
the inter-eruptive period from December 2017 to May 2018. During the 2018 eruption, both reservoirs fed
two radial feeder dikes below the north flank, probably interacting with an underlying peripheral melt pocket,
and an inclined sheet below the NW sector of the caldera. Our results highlight the primary role of the deeper
reservoir which accumulates most of the magma before eruptions. Both eruptions were characterized by rapid
magma transfer from the deeper to the shallower reservoir. This is similar to what is observed at the nearby
Wolf volcano, but unlike nearby Sierra Negra, where a shallower reservoir accumulates higher volumes of
magma before eruptions. These differences in the pre-eruptive role of the deeper and shallower reservoirs might
be related to the different evolutionary stages of Fernandina and Wolf with regard to the more mature Sierra
Manni M. (2023)
Crisi vulcaniche e demografiche nella storia delle Isole Eolie.
Nisio S. (Eds) (2023) - Giornate di Geologia & Storia. Memorie Descrittive della Carta Geologica d’Italia, Dipartimento per il Servizio Geologico d’Italia, ISPRA, 110: pp. 366-374
Data di pubblicazione: 16/05/2023
PubAIV-ID-00113 - Capitolo di un Libro (open access)

In the context of the multi-millennial history of the Aeolian Islands, there have been long periods of demographic crises whose dynamics are unclear. Among possible causes, recent studies identify significant volcanic events that occurred on Stromboli, Vulcano and Lipari, the main island hosting the oldest settlements about 7.3 ka ago.
An initial decline occurred during the 4th millennium BC, which appears linked to the evolution of the La Fossa cone on Vulcano and to repeated collapses on the Neostromboli volcano. A second crisis occurred between the 10-7th centuries BC; the most recent was in the early Middle Ages, with the resumption of the volcanism of Lipari and Vulcano, including the Insulam Vulcanelli, which emerged around the year 1000. The direct and indirect effects of the most significant volcanic events, as well as the perception of the relative risk, took their toll on local communities, contributing to drastic demographic declines on several occasions.
Pensa A., Giordano G., Corrado S., Petrone P.P. (2023)
A new hazard scenario at Vesuvius: deadly thermal impact of detached ash cloud surges in 79CE at Herculaneum.
Scientific Reports 13, 5622
Data di pubblicazione: 06/04/2023
PubAIV-ID-00108 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Diluted pyroclastic density currents are capable to cause huge devastation and mortality around volcanoes, and temperature is a crucial parameter in assessing their lethal power. Reflectance analysis on carbonized wood from ancient Herculaneum allowed a new reconstruction of the thermal events that affected buildings and humans during the 79CE Vesuvius eruption. Here we show that the first PDC entered the town was a short-lived, ash cloud surge, with temperatures of 555–495 °C, capable of causing instant death of people, while leaving only a few decimeters of ash on ground, which we interpret as detached from high concentration currents. The subsequent pyroclastic currents that progressively buried the town were mostly higher concentration PDCs at lower temperatures, between 465 and 390 and 350–315 °C. Charcoal proved to be the only proxy capable of recording multiple, ephemeral extreme thermal events, thus revealing for the first time the real thermal impact of the 79CE eruption. The lethal impact documented for diluted PDC produced during ancient and recent volcanic eruptions suggests that such hazard deserves greater consideration at Vesuvius and elsewhere, especially the underestimated hazard associated with hot detached ash cloud surges, which, though short lived, may expose buildings to severe heat damages and people to death.
Trasatti E., Magri C., Acocella V., Del Gaudio C., Ricco C., Di Vito M.A. (2023)
Magma Transfer at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) After the 1538 AD Eruption.
Geophysical Research Letters, 50, e2022GL102437
Data di pubblicazione: 06/06/2023
PubAIV-ID-00112 - Articolo in Rivista (open access)

Shallow magma transfer is difficult to detect at poorly monitored volcanoes. Magma transfer before the last 1538 eruption at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) was exceptionally tracked using historical, archeological, and geological data. Here, we extend that data set to 1650 to uncover any magma transfer during post-eruptive subsidence. Results show two post-eruptive subsidence phases, separated by a previously undocumented uplift during 1540–1582. Uplift highlights the pressurization of the central (∼3.5 km depth) and peripheral (∼1 km depth) pre-eruptive sources, suggesting an aborted eruption. The subsidence events mainly require the depressurization of the central source and pressurization of a deeper magmatic layer (∼8 km depth). Therefore, despite the overall post-eruptive deflation, after 1538 the deeper reservoir experienced continuous magma supply, with magma almost erupting between 1540 and 1582, challenging the common assumption of post-eruptive deflation. This underlies the importance of monitoring the deeper magmatic systems, also after eruptions, to properly assess their eruptive potential.
Tematica 5: Vulcani e società
Manni M. (2022)
Origini del culto e le locali leggende di San Calogero: una doppia chiave per l’interpretazione del vulcanismo medievale di Lipari.
Giornate di Geologia & Storia. Memorie Descrittive della Carta Geologica d’Italia, Dipartimento per il Servizio Geologico d’Italia, ISPRA, 109: pp. 336 - pp. 157-166, Nisio S. (Eds) (2022).
Data di pubblicazione: 12/12/2022
PubAIV-ID-00098 - Capitolo di un Libro (open access)

The island of Lipari boasts a very complex volcanological
history that lasted until the Late Middle Ages,
interacting with that of the anthropic communities and
permeating their culture. The risk perceived by the inhabitants
during the resurgence of Lipari-Vulcano led to calling
on thaumaturgists or miracle workers to protect the territory.
Among these, of note was the hermit Calogero, sent
to Lipari around 525 AD to tame the on-going volcanic
phenomena, as can be seen from the writings. Some volcanological
studies have incorporated the contents of the
story without distinguishing between the original historical
aspect and the traditional oral one, reformulated locally
according to the last volcanic events taking place on the
island in the 13th century. Following the interpretation proposed
in this work, contemporary legends are linked to this
last eruptive cycle, while the hypothesis that an eruptive
center was already active in the 6th century, as suggested by
contemporary sources, is still pertinent.
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